Transdermal selegiline: the new generation
of monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Patkar AA, Pae CU, Masand PS.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
CNS Spectr. 2006 May;11(5):363-75.
ABSTRACTThe clinical use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) has declined due to concerns about food and drug interactions and waning physician experience. Evidence indicates that MAOIs are effective in depressive disorders, in particular depression with atypical features. Efforts to address safety issues have led to the development of more selective and reversible MAOIs, such as moclobemide. Selegiline, a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, has been approved for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease at low doses. At higher doses, oral selegiline is also effective in major depressive disorder (MDD) but loses its selectivity and has the potential for tyramine interactions. To overcome these problems, a transdermal formulation of selegiline, the selegiline transdermal system (STS), was developed with novel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Compared with oral administration, transdermal selegiline leads to sustained plasma concentrations of the parent compound, increasing the amount of drug delivered to the brain and decreasing metabolite production. In addition, STS allows targeted inhibition of central nervous system monoamine A (MAO-A) and monoamine B isoenzymes with minimal effects on MAO-A in the gastrointestinal and hepatic systems, thereby reducing the risk of interactions with tyramine-rich foods (the "cheese-reaction"). Clinical trials have found 6 mg/24 hours of STS to be effective in MDD without the need for dietary restrictions. The efficacy and safety profile of STS supports its use in MDD. It is possible that STS may demonstrate benefit in MDD with atypical features or MDD resistant to other antidepressants. However, more research is needed. Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the properties and indications for the new generation of MAOIs.
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Selegiline and life-expectancy
Selegiline as an immunostimulant
Selegiline for cocaine-dependence
Parkinson's disease: resources and hotlinks
and further reading
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family