Cytoprotective effect of two synthetic enhancer substances, (-)-BPAP and (-)-deprenyl, on human brain capillary endothelial cells and rat PC12 cells
Denes L, Szilagyi G, Gal A, Bori Z, Nagy Z.
Department of Vascular Neurology,
Semmelweis University,
Budapest, Hungary.
Life Sci. 2006 Aug 8;79(11):1034-9.


Enhancer regulation is a new control mechanism in the brain [Knoll, J., 2003. Enhancer regulation/endogenous and synthetic enhancer compounds: a neurochemical concept of the innate and acquired drives. Neurochemical Research 28(8), 1275-1297]. Enhancer substances exert their effect in bi-modal form with a highly characteristic dose-dependency. Two bell-shaped concentration curves have been published. The one in ultra low concentration range (fM) specific form of enhancer regulation and the other at high concentration (100 microM) non-specific form of enhancer regulation. Catecholaminergic neurons proved to be enhancer-sensitive cells. Since rat PC12 cells and human brain endothelial cells (HBEC) work under catecholaminergic influence, it was reasonable to expect that both the specific and non-specific form of the enhancer regulation might be detectable in these cells. We tested this possibility on these cultured cells under normoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation. After 1 h hypoxia produced by Argon gas and 0, 2, 4, and 20 h reoxygenation the cell loss was calculated by propidiumiodide assay and the cell activity was investigated by Alamar Blue assay colorimetric measurement. The percentages of living and necrotic cells were expressed after propidiumiodide staining. Broad scale concentrations of the two compounds (1 fM-100 microM) were added to the culture strait after the oxygen deprivation. (-)-BPAP and (-)-deprenyl, due to their enhancer effect, exerted a significant cytoprotective effect on both HBECs and PC12 cells. In harmony with Knoll's publications we were able to demonstrate by the aid of (-)-BPAP and (-)-deprenyl that both HBEC and PC12 are enhancer-sensitive cells. We detected the specific form of the enhancer regulation in the ultra low concentration range (fM-pM) and also the non-specific form of the enhancer regulation was visible (mM-microM).

Alzheimer's disease
Selegiline and MDMA
Selegiline and the DAT
Selegiline and nitric oxide
Selegiline and life-expectancy
Selegiline for longer-lived flies
Selegiline as an anticonvulsant
Selegiline: product information
Selegiline for cocaine dependence

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family